Comprehensive and sustainable peace and security in a plural society: extreme challenges to Nigerian internal security, By Albert Horsfall


Mr. Horsfall is a former National Security Adviser.


The two global wars, otherwise called world wars – one and two had been fought before I was born. Following these global threats to peace and security there had been relative global quiet (peace and security) aside from the occasional regional blips – particularly Korea, Vietnam, Middle East (i.e. Israel and the Arabs), the Indian sub continent (India and Pakistan) throughout the global scene.

2. In this country the earliest known case of the use of firearms to confront a government and kill fellow human beings was the military coup event of 1966 when a group of young officers mostly majors took up arms and partially overthrew the Nigerian government of that time. The country then went through periods of insecurity and violence, murders and destructions of lives and property which ultimately led to the Civil War of 1967-1970 when over one million Nigerian lives were needlessly lost.

3. Since the Civil War violence and insecurity had somewhat become endemic in this country. At first it was the crime of armed robbery that started soon after the Civil War. Then series of other sporadic and protracted cases of violence and insecurity here and there.

4. The Nigeria I grew up in used to be one Sea of tranquility and placidity. Perhaps the major insecurity of a regional or national character we knew was the Gboko riots and the brutal attempts to suppress them. Insecurity at the local level were the occasional murders arising from disputes over the promiscuous or randy escapades by some of our rascally forbears over female partners which was sort of rampant among some Ijaw community (where incidentally I belong) and Ikot Ekpene areas; or indeed local seasonal clashes over farmlands in Izzi and Abakaliki parts of this country.

5. Gentlemen – for we are all gentlemen at the bar.

Today the world is in turmoil! The entire globe – North, South, East and West is in conflict or some other forms of insecurity!



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  • armrod

    The picture above is Prof Tam DAVID west