Mr Coulibaly returned from France two weeks ago after two months of receiving heart treatment.
He received a heart transplant in 2012 and had travelled to Paris on May 2 for the insertion of a stent.
Upon his return, he was quoted to have said: “I am back to take my place by the side of the president, to continue the task of developing and building our country, Ivory Coast.”
While announcing his death on public television, the Secretary General to the Ivorien presidency, Patrick Achi, said: “I am deeply saddened to announce that Prime Minister Amadou Gon Coulibaly, the head of government, left us early this afternoon after taking part in a cabinet meeting.”
Alassane Ouattara, President of the Ivory Coast, in a statement said: “pay tribute to my younger brother, my son Amadou Gon Coulibaly, who was my closest collaborator for 30 years.”
Je rends hommage à mon jeune frère, mon fils, Amadou Gon Coulibaly, qui a été, pendant trente ans, mon plus proche collaborateur. pic.twitter.com/M0gk0kPU0W