INVESTIGATION: Grim tales of rape, child trafficking in Nigeria’s displaced persons camps

FILE PHOTO: Mother and child in an Internally Displaced People's camp Yola, Adamawa state.

By Charles Dickson

On a bed at the female ward of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital laid a 15-year-old girl in an evidently bad state. Her face and head were bandaged, leaving slits through which only a bruised eye and swollen lips were visible. On her body were clearer signs of trauma, with burns running from her neck down to the lower parts of her body.

Around her bed wafted a foul smell, which a nurse who came to attend to her attributed to a septic wound in the girl’s skull.

A nurse who does not want to be named, because she is not authorised to speak to the on the matter, told the icirnigeria.org, that a group of people from the biggest Internally Displaced Persons, IDP, camp in Maiduguri dumped Lami (the surnames of all victims in this report are withheld to protect them) at the hospital.

“We have many of them. They’d been either raped in the camp or sold by those that should be protecting them in the camps,” the nurse said.

Approached by the reporter, Lami tried to speak, but her voice was muffled into a whisper as pains coursed through her body.

She said her parents were killed by Boko Haram insurgents in her village and she managed to reach Maiduguri, capital of Borno State, in an open truck that dropped people off at a camp for displaced persons.

In the course of moving from one camp to the other, she was separated from her younger brother.

“I do not know where he is,” she said through muffled sobs.

How did she end up in the hospital burnt and battered?

Lami said some government officials came to the camp and took many young girls away and later sold them as slaves. She ended up in the house of one Alhaji Aliyu, whose brother and wife abused her. While Aliyu’s brother repeatedly raped her, his wife weighed in with physical abuse.

“One day, some people came to the camp and said that they were taking us to a better place. That was how I got to Alhaji Aliyu’s house and it was there, every day, his brother forcefully slept with me.

“After that, he would beat me and one of Alhaji’s wives too would always beat me. One day she attacked me with a knife. That was how I got the wound in my skull,” she recounted.

Lami’s case, depressingly, is not an isolated one. Hundreds of girls are now being trafficked from some of the IDP camps in the Northeast set up to cater for people displaced by the insurgency, especially unregistered ones.

It was learnt that because many of the camps cannot accommodate all the people displaced from their homes by Boko Haram attacks, many IDPs end up in makeshift unofficial camps close to the officially designated ones or in nearby villages.

The people in the makeshift camps are not officially registered and technically are not under the care of government.

They are usually taken care of by villagers or even relatives in the government-run camps. Somehow, state officials have the same access and control over these unofficial camps.

They ran from their village in Adamawa and are in small unregistered camp in Gombe
They ran from their village in Adamawa and are in small unregistered camp in Gombe

A fertile ground for child trafficking

Kingsley Ogar, a staff of an international donor agency, who does not want his organisation named, confirmed that child trafficking is rife in the IDP camps.

“We had a case in Gombe where a group of persons came from the South, Lagos or Ibadan, we can’t be so sure, paid some people and took away children from the camp.

“We went to deliver relief items in this particular IDP Camp and took a census so that we could come back the following day, which we did, only to realize that over a dozen of them were missing. They were mostly young children between the ages of 5 and 15. “Upon investigation we discovered that some “lords” in the camp were in partnership with the Lagos people to sell the kids.

“We reported to the police (Gombe State command), but we do not know whether they have done anything,” he said.

Our reporter learnt of an IDP camp in Yola where there were said to be about 900 children without parents. It was alleged that children were being sold and trafficked in the camp.

Our reporter visited the camp posing as an official of a church that takes care of children and made startling discoveries. An official in the camp named Raila, who wore the reflective vest of the National Emergency Management Agency, NEMA, told the reporter to wait while she went into a makeshift office. There, she spoke with a male colleague, whom she said is an official of NEMA.

She returned to announce: “You will pay N50,000.for each child and you can only go with three if you want them today,” as if she was in a livestock market.

Apparently not totally devoid of conscience, she tried to rationalise her illicit trade. “We use the money to take care of the other children still here,” she said.

Without any attempt at verifying the reporter’s identity and in less than 30 minutes, three children were ready to be sold, possibly never to return to their roots.

Further investigations revealed that such child trafficking business is a thriving and well-run racket in most IDP camps in the insurgency ravaged North east. It is a triangular manifestation of evil that comprises some heartless displaced persons, unscrupulous camp officials and child traffickers.

Displaced persons who know the children without parents act as middlemen between the buyer and the seller. They liaise with people who come from places as far flung as Akwa Ibom, Lagos, Abuja, Katsina, to carry out the first step in the trafficking process.

The displaced person also identifies the children to be sold and goes ahead to negotiate a price, which, it was gathered, could range from as little as N10,000 to as much as N100,000. After negotiations, the middleman approaches the camp official in charge. The official collects the money and approves the release of the kids.

The child trafficker, we gathered, then re-sells the children to an interested family as a domestic servant or slave.

Like Lami, many, if not all of these children, have very little education. They have little knowledge of their rights and no clue as to how to return home. Those they entrusted their lives with at the IDP camps liaise with the traffickers and agents exploiting their vulnerability in this hideous transaction.

A woman and her child in an IPD camp in Gombe. Children, especially those without parents are targeted.
A woman and her child in an IPD camp in Gombe. Children, especially those without parents are targeted.

More heart-rending tales

In Gombe, 16-year-old Laraba told icirnigeria.org that an official of the state emergency relief agency named Ibrahim took her from the camp where she was to his home on the pretext that she would be helping the wife with household chores.

“I was happy leaving the camp, but when we got to his house, there was no wife. He raped me continuously for three nights, locked me inside his house for days and threatened me.”

She continued, “I managed to escape and came back to the camp. I got pregnant. An old woman we call ‘Kaka’, gave me some leaves. I was bleeding for almost two weeks and smelling.”

She said she is currently feeling better and has overcome the ordeal. But she had to suffer in silence as she could not tell anyone because she thought nobody would believe her and for fear of being sent away from the camp.

“I am not the only one this has happened to and I am sure Ibrahim, the health worker, is not the only one doing this type of thing,” she reasoned.

Thirty-two year old Binta caught our reporter’s attention as she muttered to herself, looking like a traumatized person. The tale she told was shocking and distressing. Sadly, no one believes her or is willing to do anything about it.

“After the attack in Mubi, I fled with my one year old child.

“From the first camp we were, a secondary school, I was told a family in Yola was coming to take us. They came to pick me and my baby. When I saw them I was suspicious, but what could I do, without anyone to help? I put my baby in the car, and they sped away,” she said resignedly.

Binta is realistic to know that she might never see her baby again but her problem is what to tell her husband from whom she was separated in the aftermath of the attack on Mubi.

“I have lost all hope of ever seeing my baby again. I do not know whether my husband is alive or not. A family member says he was among those who ran to Cameroon.

“If he finds me tomorrow, what do I tell him about our baby?” she wondered.

Sixteen year-old Aisha is in an IDP camp in Gombe and is three months pregnant.

She had been sexually abused by men from a community near the IDP camp and denied contact with anyone.

“I want to go back home, but there is no home. My village is near Gwoza. They started sleeping with me since I came to the camp. I was told that if I refused, they would kill me,” she claimed.

Hiding her face behind a veil, she said: “I feel like killing myself. I guess that’s the only way out of this misery.”

Official complicity and complacency

Many aid workers in the IDP camps allege that there is a conspiracy of silence, which encourages government officials in many of the IDP camps to continue to exploit the displaced persons.

One aid worker pointedly accused officials of the National Emergency Management Agency, NEMA, the police and state government officials of being behind the child trafficking racket in the IDP camps.

Since the same officials that these cases should be reported to are the perpetrators. Many victims just keep quiet for fear of being sent out of the camp.

Osim Jones, a Jos-based lawyer, who has helped rescue some trafficked girls, said that the allegation of child trafficking in the displaced persons’ camp and the complicity of police officers and other government officials is real and that federal government should investigate the accusations.

Mr. Jones said it was sad that the authorities do not believe that these evils are happening in the IDP camps and that they constitute a major problem.

“We can’t give up or be silent because the police are denying, aid workers don’t want to talk,” he said.

The agency that should really be in charge of displaced persons camps is the National Commission of Refugees, but the agency has absolutely no presence in any of the IDP camps visited in Borno and Gombe states.

That is not surprising, as the Federal Government has not shown any seriousness in funding the agency. Not much is appropriated for the agency, and of its budget, funds allocated to purchases directly related to refugees matters have dwindled even though the insurgency in the Northeast has increased in the last two years.

In 2012, of the miserly N512 million appropriated for the commission, only N70 million meant for purchase of health and medical equipment had anything to do with refugee matters.

In 2014, of the N616 million budgeted for the agency, only N19.4 million was appropriated for medical supplies had any bearing to refugees. Even at that, there was no indication the medical supplies got to victims.

ICIR learnt that with increasing complaints to the government about the conditions in the IDP camps, the office of the Attorney-General, last year, sent an official of the National Commission for Refugees to one of the camps in Maiduguri to study the situation and see how the agency can get more involved.

However, no other agency in the camp was ready to relate with the official sent by the Attorney-General’s office. Worse still, it was learnt that the investigator’s visit and stay in the camp were also not adequately funded, a development that forced her to return to Abuja after two weeks.

In Yola, the Adamawa State capital, the state’s police spokesperson, was unavailable to comment. But an officer, who spoke on the condition of anonymity, said: “We cannot exclude the fact that criminals are taking advantage of the current situation, but there are no official complaints.”

A volunteer taking count in preparation to share a meal in a camp in Gombe
A volunteer taking count in preparation to share a meal in a camp in Gombe

The National Agency for the Prohibition of Traffic in Persons and Other Related Matters, NAPTIP, the agency which by law should prevent human trafficking, appears to be unaware of the illegal trade in children going on in the camps. Efforts to speak to the executive secretary of the agency, Beatrice Jedy-Agba, were unsuccessful.

But the head Press and Publications Research Unit, of the agency, Josiah Emerole, said NAPTIP was not aware of any trafficking of humans in the IDP camps.

He said also the agency had not received any reports of such atrocities occurring in the camps.

Mr. Emerole, who appeared shocked when confronted with details of our investigation, promised to reach out to the NAPTIP zonal offices in the Northeast to verify and act speedily on the allegations.

Confronted with the results of our findings, officials of NEMA also claimed ignorance of the atrocities being committed by the agency’s officials and others in the IDP camps.

The agency’s chief information officer, Sani Datti, said NEMA headquarters was not aware of the allegations and had not received any reports of cases of child trafficking in the IDP camps in the North east.

“These allegations you have made are grave and serious but we cannot really address them here at the headquarters. We have to reach the zonal coordinators to get the real fact or investigate them,’ he said.

Mr. Datti gave our reporter the contacts of the NEMA coordinators in the Northeast but they all feigned ignorance of the criminal activities of officials in the camps.

NEMA’s coordinator in Gombe, Sa’ad Ahmad Minin, said he was not aware of any cases of rape or child trafficking in any camp under his jurisdiction. When given specific details of Laraba who was raped by Ibrahim, Mr. Minin referred ICIR to an official named Hajara, whom he said was on ground and in direct charge of the camps.

On the phone, Hajara too denied knowledge of any incident of rape or child trafficking but promised to investigate the matter.

‘I do not know of any such case. But as you have told me now, tomorrow I will go to the camp and investigate,” she said.

However, an official of NEMA who spoke to our reporter but does not want to be named confided that many of the officials of the agencies in the camps are not regular staff but volunteers.

“Our officials in those places are short-staffed and many of the people you see wearing NEMA reflective vests are actually not our staff but volunteers. But as you say they are there acting for the agency so we must be held responsible for their actions,” the official stated.

When ICIR confronted the National Human Rights Commission, NHRC, with the result of its investigations, its chairman, Chidi Odinkalu, said that he had received reports of abuses in the IDP camps, including rape and child trafficking.

Mr. Odinkalu said the commission has set machinery in motion to engage government agencies involved in managing the IDP camps as well as security agencies on the need to investigate the allegations and stop such abuses. He, however, lamented that such efforts have not been very successful.

He added that the NHRC would explore all avenues to investigate the allegations and take appropriate action.

This project was supported by Ford Foundation and the International Centre for Investigative reporting. We have ICIR’s permission to republish in full here.


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  • tyson

    B-R-E-A-K-I-N-G News!!!
    “Igbos Hate Me Because of Biafra War” – Buhari In BBC Hausa.

    Maj Gen Muhammadu Buhari has dropped the bombshell, on the reason he has been losing election in Igboland and parts of Nigeria where Igbos are residing, stating that it is because he was involved in the Nigerian civil war. …

    The former dictator speaking today on BBC Hausa services monitored in kaduna, said with regrets that, “the igbos hate him for what happened during the Biafran war”. “I don’t have any regret, and at such do not owe any apology to them, infact if there is a repeat of the civil war again, I will kill more Igbos to save the country”.

    The APC presidential candidate, added that this was the reason they never bothered to vote for him anywhere in Nigeria.

    It is shame, that a man that is aspiring to rule the whole country, not part of it, will talk in this manner.what a shame

    BEWARE, THIS MAN HAS NEVER TALKED ABOUT PEACE, BUT BLOODBATH AND PAIN.

    • Intrepid

      deri oburka I told you, this your cheap ijaw propaganda is doing more harm than good to Johnathan. The IGBOS voting for Johnathan is not because he is an ijaw, but because of who he is, a meek gentleman. I wonder what you want from the GREAT IGBOS? For all the years your ijaw folks have been mercilessly collaborating and stabbing the IGBOS from behind, but the Igbos remained undaunted and held on to the philosophy of time will tell. And your bloody friends in crime against humanity are there ones issuing threats of arrest against your freedom fighters, even after the sequestration of your God given terrestrial patrimony to them.

      Woe unto the evil soul, whose stock in trade is to stoke contention among fellow humans, for his shall be a life filled with an unending strife and misery.

      Read your kinsman doing what he knows best, thrashing Johnathan.

      Nigeria, a failed state under Jonathan –David-West (Nig Punch Newspaper)

      A
      former Minister of Petroleum Resources, Prof. Tam David-West, on Tuesday
      described Nigeria as a failed state.

      David-West,
      at a news conference in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, said that any government
      that could not protect its citizens was a failed government.

      He
      said, “We have a failed state in Nigeria today. I have been reading what is
      happening in Rivers State. Any government that cannot protect its
      citizens is not worth being called a government.”

      Tam David-West hits Jonathan(The Sun, Nov 30th 2014)

      Former
      Minister for Petroleum, Professor Tam David West is an ardent supporter of
      General Mu­hammadu Buhari’s 2015 presidential ambition. He believes that the
      former head of state is the only one that can change Nigeria if given the
      chance to rule the country again. In this interview, the professor, who is
      President Jona­than’s kinsman, describes the president as the worst Nigerian
      leader in the na­tion’s history and speaks on other na­tional issue.

    • Chidi

      Cheap propaganda!!!!!!! I lost an uncle in the war – my mom only brother. But will I vote for BUHARI? YES, I WILL.

  • kudirat

    Hope these desperate northern leaders that want power by all means see what they are doing to their people all in the course to get power by all means as if power is their birth rite. May God Almighty bring judgement on all of you sponsors of evil and your households. This year is a year of judgement and that judgement shall fall on you evil doers this year, amen.

    • Chidi

      The person that said this country will be ungovernable is a PDPigs member and PDPigs are BOKO HARAM, Late NSA Azazi, when he was interviewed at Asaba, Delta State, he said ” BOKO HARAM IS PDPigs AND PDPigs IS BOKO HARAM AND IT WAS POLITICAL”. GEJ FIRED HIM FEW WEEKS AFTER AND THAT WAS THE REASON HE WAS FIRED. IS GEJ MORE OF IJAW MAN THAN AZAZI? GEJ IS A FAILURE!!!!!!

      • kudirat

        Just like you are a failure for faking your name, you e-rats you wouldn’t stop at any means to pleas your sponsor. Your brain is really mal-functioning and you really need help before it will generate to full blown madness.

  • Curiousity

    But how many of the displaced are actually Nigerians? PT should know that there are never any border protocols in Northern Nigeria. People from Niger, Chad and Northern Cameroun move across at will with no checks whatsoever. Many of those who today claim to be from Katsina are actually from Moradi, a border town in Niger Republic. Over half of the population of Jibia local govt in Katsina have the origin from Niger Republi. It is a common knowledge even amongst locals. This is why these people easily cross the borders to their original countries when Boko haram attacks…and then set up camps in their own countries while they claim to be Nigerian refugees so that they can share from the so called ‘national’ cake from a confused continent Nigeria, a confused people.

    These people should be interrogated properly and the fake Nigerians deported without delay, while the real Nigerians can be resettled somewhere in Funtua.

    • Dunamis

      U r sick in the head, is that a justifiable reason to hurt any1? BH is not the only problem dis country has, even an ordinary man who is given a little responsibility to handle, they introduce corruption. I weep fr them. GEJ till 2019

  • Wise Head

    The people sponsoring this extreme barbarism and cruelty in the North called Boko Haram just to prove that the country has serious security challenges and use it to gain political advantage will not go unpunished. Their hands are filled with blood. Even if they get that political power, they will be haunted by blood of these innocent people daily. Peace will desert them. And since they relish in killing or sponsoring the killing of others, bloodshed, that which they wish for others will be their lot. Unless they repent of their heinous crimes against humanity and confess their grievous sins to God and publicly to men and do the necessary restitution

    • growthengine

      Ameen

    • Dan maikoko

      They wont repent just vote wisely for a person that will smoke them out.

  • warry

    With the increased Global and Regional support BH will soon be defeated. I want to use this medium to call on Northern Youths to support. Pres Jonathan for another 4years while a young and intelligent person from the North is prepared to take over from him in 2019.

    • solo_giger

      You must be smoking ganja

      • paul eneke

        He must have smoked something stronger before posting the comment.Cant Nigerians understand! this guy is a complete failure.

        • warry

          You guys know what you are smoking if not Buhari had 20 months with absolute powers but did nothing from 1984 – 1985, yet you want to give him 48 months to destroy what GEJ has done because power must come to the North. You are instigating ignorant youths to kill people. With 38 years of previous Northern rule, all that you are lying against GEJ should have been solved long ago.

  • Double U

    This is so sad

  • IS.JESUS.CHRIST.A.CHRISTIAN

    GOOD LOCK JO NOTHING

    • blueeyedkitten

      IS THIS REAL?

  • PDP mouthpiece

    “The writing is on the wall. The Clueless One is on his way back to his Otueke watershed in conjunction with his trashy sheppopotamus.”

    —-T9ksy (Femi Kayode – Nairaland – 20 January 2015)

  • IS.JESUS.CHRIST.A.CHRISTIAN

    WHY JONATHAN WILL LOSE SECOND TERM ELECTION… -T Y DANJUMA.

    Former defense minister, General Danjuma yesterday list reasons Jonathan will lose the fast approa…ching presidential election to opposition APC.

    The general while speaking with journalists said, jonathan is rewarding crime and encourage more people to go to it.

    He said the recent statement credited to former militants to wage war against Nigeria should president loses shows that Nigeria is been run by an incompetent person.

    Danjuma surprise why, DSS is yet to arrest this disgruntled element but quick to vandalize opposition office for just no cause.

    Danjuma further said, another reason Jonathan stand no chance in the election is his handling of south west part of the country, he said, yoruba are intelligent people, you don’t use and dump them, and that is exactly what president did, they voted for him, overwhelmingly but pay them back with neglect, he is busy promoting criminals in their region, look at Buruji a drug baron, Fayose and one Omisore who are criminals are been promoted over yoruba intelligentsia.

    All this will not make them trust him any more.

    I see him loosing this election massively. Danjuma concluded

    • tunji braimoh

      idiots celebrating evil.Who is T.Y Danjuma?another coupist who made money from corruption in allocating oil wells and you are here quoting him as if he is a good example to anyone except gang of looters fighting to secure their oil licenses which are expiring this year.EVIL MAY TARRY FOR A WHILE BUT GOOD WILL ALWAYS OVERCOME AT THE END OF IT ALL

      • IS.JESUS.CHRIST.A.CHRISTIAN

        BASTARRD IGBO CRIMINAL!!!

        • tunji braimoh

          since i am not igbo i guess you are insulting yourself,even the fake name you are using shows your mindset and exhibits the fact that you are a lost case and an accident waiting to happen/LUNATIC

          • IS.JESUS.CHRIST.A.CHRISTIAN

            I AM INSULTING YOU CRIMINAL DOG. BASTARRD BABY FACTORY PRODUCT AND SLAVE OF THE EVIL CHRIST.

  • Adam Noma

    THAT IS WHY 200 YEARS IMPRISON AND FIRING SQUADS ARE THE BEST OPTIONS FOR CORRUPT, HEARTLESS, CURSED AND INHUMAN CULPRITS.

  • Akpaka

    …and these Nigerians voted for a president to provide security for them, only for the man to take delight in seeing their suffering and still wanting 4 more years of similar disaster for others that are not from his Ijaw enclave.

    • tunji braimoh

      daft and very senseless write up if your wife refuses to sleep with you it must be Jonathan.i don’t blame you after all for the ist time we have a listening president who was gracious enough to sign the FOI bill into law and quarantee free and fair elections

      • Michael Chima Ekenyerengozi

        You are sick.
        What has the FOI bill got to do with a failed government?
        Will the FOI bill save the hundreds of thousands of unfortunate victims in the IDPs camps that the officials of President Goodluck Jonathan are selling to child and sex traffickers like slaves in the 21st century?
        You must be demonic and satanic like them.

        • tunji braimoh

          Did Jonathan send them to IDP camps,is Buhari not the one you should hold responsible for making the country ungovernable just as he and his cohorts promised.You are the one that is very sick in the head for mischievously seeking to twist GEJ’s achievements by raisng childish sentiments bc obviously you have nothing tangible to reply.shame to you and your likes that are causing all the problems in this country

    • Michael Chima Ekenyerengozi

      They are demonic!

  • tunji braimoh

    NIGERIA NEEDS TO RE EVALUATE THEIR VALUES AND MORALS FROM BOTTOM TO TOP.THE BIG PROBLEM IS CORRUPTION AND LACK OF MORALS AND EVERYONE IS CULPABLE OF THAT AND NOT JUST THE RULERS

  • Michael Chima Ekenyerengozi

    Even the unfortunate victims of Boko Haram are not safe in the IDPs camps.
    Only God knows the fate of the hundreds of Nigerian refugees in the neigbouring countries.
    What happened to the millions of naira raised for the welfare of the IDPs and other victims of Boko Haram?
    GEJ and PDP have destroyed Nigeria.
    Now I know why OBJ tore his PDP membership card!
    And people are still supporting this administration?
    Are you people cursed and hypnotized under their evil spell?

  • Alan Botens

    This is so very distressing to read.

    Thankfully, Nigeria still has some semblance of a free press, and this article is a piece of excellent journalism.

    Wikipedia; “Premium Times is a Nigerian online newspaper based in Abuja, Nigeria. According to its website, it was established in 2011.”

    From the article:
    “The National Agency for the Prohibition of Traffic in Persons and Other Related Matters, NAPTIP, the agency which by law should prevent human trafficking, appears to be unaware of the illegal trade in children going on in the camps. Efforts to speak to the executive secretary of the agency, Beatrice Jedy-Agba, were unsuccessful.
    But the head Press and Publications Research Unit, of the agency, Josiah Emerole, said NAPTIP was not aware of any trafficking of humans in the IDP camps.”

    For the victimized children, it doesn’t really matter that much whether the government is indifferent or corrupt or inept or simply underfunded. The result is the same.

    I am sure there are many citizens of Nigeria who are distraught by this situation. This was clear from the demonstrations to BringBackOurGirls. The question is, what can you do? In the American civil rights movement, churches and synagogues and universities were the staging grounds for much of the activism. Then, the aim was to change laws. And where local law enforcement was in collaboration with the racists, federal law enforcement stepped in. But even if elections were held soon in Nigeria, and better leaders came to power, these problems may be beyond their powers to correct. The best hope may lie with citizens, awoken to action, and operating through a broad range of civil society organizations. If neither the national, state and local governments, nor the UN and international NGOs, can manage to provide for the well-being of the Nigerian people, then perhaps Nigerian citizens can lead the way in cleaning up and augmenting the needed schools and health clinics and orphanages and refugee camps.

    There is a lot of help from around the world that could be accessed through existing aid & development organizations and Crowdsourcing and Crowdfunding platforms. But it has not been adequate so far, and I imagine that it will not be sufficiently forthcoming until there is a much larger, much less corrupt presence of Nigerian nationals engaged in social good initiatives.

    PS. From comments I’m reading here, it is clear that a viable future for Nigeria will also depend on non-violent approaches to social change, and the development of a Nigerian national identity that can transcend religious, tribal and regional differences. It almost seems too much to hope for, but the thriving entrepreneurial spirit and economic success of Lagos leads one to believe that Nigerians are up to the challenge.